Fixed star:  HAMAL
Constellation:  Alpha (α) Aries
Longitude 1900:  06TAU16 Longitude 2000:  07TAU40
Declination 1900:  +22.59' Declination 2000:  +23.27'
Right ascension:  02h 07m Latitude:  +09.57'
Spectral class:  K2 Magnitude:  2.2

The history of the star: Hamal

from p.80 of Star Names, Richard Hinckley Allen, 1889.
[A scanned copy can be viewed on this webpage]

HamalAlpha (α) Aries, Hamal, is a yellow star on the forehead of the Ram.

Hamal, from the constellation title (Arabic hamal, "ram"), was formerly written Hamel, Hemal, Hamul, and Hammel; the Italian astronomer Riccioli (1598–1671) having Ras Hammel from Al Ras al Hamal, the Head of the Sheep.

Burritt's Atlas of 1856 had El Nath, from Al Natih, the Horn of the Butting One, is appropriate enough for this star, but in our day is given to beta (β) Taurus (El Nath).

The title of the whole figure also is seen in Arietis, another designation for this star, as was often the case with many of the lucida (brightest star) of the constellations.

Renouf identified it with the head of the Goose supposed to be one of the early zodiacal constellations of Egypt.

Strassmaier and the German orientalist Epping, in their Astronomisches aus Babylon, say that there its stars formed the third of the twenty-eight ecliptic constellations,— Arku-sha-rishu-ku, literally the Back of the Head of Ku,—which had been established along that great circle millenniums before our era; and Lenormant quotes, as an individual title from cuneiform inscriptions, Dil-kar, the Proclaimer of the Dawn, that German Orientalist Peter Jensen (1861-1936) reads As-kar (askar is an Arabic word meaning guard or soldier, derived from the Persian Lashkar), and others Dil-gan, the Messenger of Light (another star Vega in Lyra may have been one of the stars named Dilgan, "the Messenger of Light"). George Smith inferred from the tablets that it might be the Star of the Flocks; while other Euphratean names have been Lu-lim, or Lu-nit, the Ram's Eye; and Si-mal or Si-mul, the Horn Star, which came down even to late astrology as the Ram's Horn. It also was Anuv, and had its constellation's titles I-ku and I-ku-u,— by abbreviation Ku,— the Prince, or the Leading One, the Ram that led the heavenly flock, some of its titles at a different date being applied to Capella of Auriga.

Brown associates it with Aloros, the first of the ten mythical kings of Akkad anterior to the Deluge, the duration of whose reigns proportionately coincided with the distances apart of the ten chief ecliptic stars beginning with Hamal, and he deduces from this kingly title the Assyrian Ailuv, and the Hebrew Ayil (ayil -- mighty (man), lintel, oak, post, ram, tree.); the other stars corresponding to the other mythical kings being Alcyone, Aldebaran, Pollux, Regulus, Spica, Antares, Algedi (Giedi Prima), Deneb Algedi, and Scheat. {p.81} Hamal lies but little north of the ecliptic, and is much used in navigation in connection with lunar observations.

[Allen says under Mesarthim p.82;] Alpha (Hamal), beta (Sheratan), and gamma (Mesarthim) may have been the Jewish Shalisha, — more correctly Shalish, — some musical instrument of triangular shape, a title also of Triangulum. And they formed one of the several Athafiyy, Trivets or Tripods; this Arabic word indicating an arrangement of three stones on which nomads placed a kettle, or pot, in an open-air kitchen; others being in Draco, Orion, Musca, and Lyra.

[Star Names, Their Lore and Meaning, Richard Hinckley Allen, 1889].

The astrological influences of the constellation Aries

Legend: Aries represents the ram with the golden fleece, a gift from Mercury, upon which Phrixus and his sister Helle escaped through the air from their step-mother Ino. On arriving in Colchis, Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Jupiter and its fleece was hung in the Grove of Mars, whence it was subsequently carried away by Jason (see Argo). According to another account it was the ram that guided Bacchus to a spring of water in the Libyan desert. [Robson, p.31.]

Influences: Ptolemy's observations are as follows: "The stars in the head of Aries possess an influence similar in its effects to that of Mars and Saturn: those in the mouth act similarly to Mercury, and in some degree to Saturn; those in the hinder foot, to Mars; those in the tail, to Venus." By the Kabalists Aries is associated with the Hebrew letter He and the 5th Tarot Trump "The Pope." [Robson, p.31.]

"All the Aries stars have been in the sign Taurus for 200-300 years now. Hamal just over 600 (Botein actually entered Taurus in year 505AD), and in this same period we have seen large-scale aggression change its nature from barbaric raiding and migration of earlier centuries to the building of large empires which had to be administered and kept in peace and good order, as well as exploited by their conquerors. This is typical both of the sign Taurus and of the planet Saturn". [The Living Stars, Dr. Eric Morse].

The astrological influences of the constellation Aries given by Manilius:

"The Ram, who is rich with an abundance of fleecy wool and, when shorn of this, with a fresh supply, will ever cherish hopes; he will rise from the sudden shipwreck of his affairs to abundant wealth only to meet with a fall, and his desires will lead him to disaster; he will yield his produce for the common benefit, the fleece which by a thousand crafts gives birth to different forms of gain, now workers pile into heaps the undressed wool, now card it, now draw it into a tenuous thread, now weave the threads to form webs, and now they buy and sell for gain garments of every kind; no nation could dispense with these, even without indulgence in luxury. So important is this work that Pallas herself has claimed it for her own hands, of which she has judged it worthy, and deems her victory over Arachne a token of her greatness. These are the callings and allied crafts that the Ram will decree for those born under his sign: in an anxious breast he will fashion a diffident heart that ever yearns to commend itself by its own praise.

"When the Ram emerges above the surface of the waves (rising) and the curve of his neck appears before his horns, he will give birth to hearts that are never content with what is theirs; he will engender minds bent on plunder and will banish all sense of shame: such is their desire for venture. Even thus does the ram himself rush forth with lowered horns, resolved to win or die. Not for them the gentle ease of a fixed abode with none but peaceful cares; it is ever their delight to travel through unknown cities, to explore uncharted seas, and enjoy the whole world's hospitality. The Ram himself gives you evidence of this: once furrowing a trail through the glassy sea, he tinged it with the gold of his fleece, when on his back he carried Phrixus, bereft of his sister (Helle) by fate's decree, and brought him to the banks of the Phasis and to Colchis". [Astronomica, Manilius, 1st century AD, book 4, p.233].

The astrological influences of the star Hamal

Notes: A yellow star situated in the forehead of the Ram and commonly known as the ram's Following Horn. From Al Hamal, the Sheep. Symbolically called the Death Wound and often incorrectly named El Nath. [Robson*, p.170.]

Influences: According to Ptolemy it is of the nature of Mars and Saturn; and, to Alvidas, of Venus and Saturn. It causes violence brutishness, cruelty and premeditated crime. [Robson*, p.170.]

The Mars-Saturn combination appear to be fighting each other for domination, and this influence could be a dangerous one in the material sphere. If connected closely otherwise, life may be repeatedly in danger, for example, if the native undertakes climbing - up or down; or by leap or dive into an abyss. If connected with beneficial stellar bodies, the influence of this star will be lessened. If Mars or Venus are linked and if other factors are equally present, suffering connected with the love life or ill treatment by sadism is indicated. [Fixed Stars and Their Interpretation, Elsbeth Ebertin, 1928, p.19, under the name El Nath.]

Headstrong and often aggressive, yet potentially capable leaders and protectors of their community, all qualities of the Ram. [The Living Stars, Dr. Eric Morse, p.32.]

With Sun: Dissipation, evil associates, loss and disgrace. [Robson*, p171.]

With Moon:  Patient, slow success through hard work, trouble through love affairs but favorable for marriage, marriage partner gains by business or speculation. [Robson*, p171.]

With Mercury: Dull mind, many friends, great determination, tactful, greatly influenced by marriage partner. [Robson*, p171.]

With Venus: Handsome, quiet, envious, jealous, domestic trouble, ill-health to native or family. [Robson*, p171.]

With Mars: Violence, criminal tendencies, influential position but final disgrace and ruin. [Robson*, p171.]

With Jupiter: Dissipated, hypocritical, legal or ecclesiastical preferment, loss by speculation. [Robson*, p171.]

With Saturn: Cautious, thoughtful, critical, sarcastic, materialistic, interested in geology or agriculture, some domestic happiness, favorable for gain. [Robson*, p171.]

With Uranus: Pleasant, sympathetic, easily influenced, sensitive, strong passions, weak nature, mediumistic, drink or detrimental habits, many friends, love troubles, death under distressing circumstances. [Robson*, p171.]

With Neptune: Strong character, firm, occult interests, mental disturbance at end of life, connected with societies, success in business connected with clothing or ornaments, success in dealing with opposite sex, domestic harmony, accumulates wealth, sudden death. [Robson*, p171.]

References:

*[Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology, Vivian E. Robson, 1923].